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Copyright © 1993-2001 by the Xerox Corporation and Copyright © 2002-2005 by the Palo Alto Research Center. All rights reserved.


XLE is a computational environment that assists in writing and debugging Lexical Functional Grammars (LFGs) (Kaplan Bresnan, 1982). It provides linguists with a facility for writing syntactic rules and lexical entries, and for testing and editing them. It also provides an interface with finite-state morphological analyzers. The system applies these specifications to sentences or other strings and then provides the following analytic information:

XLE was originally written in the 1990's and implements some of the recent additions to the LFG formalism. It includes outside-in and inside-out functional uncertainty (Kaplan Zaenen, 1989), distribution over sets, restriction, and a rich notation for expressing c-structure patterns. The system allows correspondences between multiple levels of linguistic representation to be defined, as described by Kaplan (1987) and Halvorsen and Kaplan (1988). As a simple application of this capability, the system can display the properties of a semantic representation that is characterized and associated with a string by lexical and syntactic schemata. Parameterized macros and templates are supported so that common constituent and functional patterns can be expressed as independent generalizations.

The system provides a powerful interface for defining and manipulating linguistic rules and representations. After installing a collection of syntactic rules and lexical entries into XLE, you can see whether those items are sufficient to analyze sentences or phrases in the language in question. You can also easily mix and match different sets of linguistic specifications as you experiment with different versions of particular rules and lexical entries, whether you have written them yourself or they have been provided by other users of the system.

XLE also supports other activities that surround the business of grammar development. These include: analyzing performance, processing testsuites, and saving analyses in a number of formats (postscript, prolog, and LFG lexical entries).

XLE is implemented in C, and runs on Solaris, linux, and MacOSX. XLE and this document try to be self-contained, so that a linguist can successfully use the system without detailed knowledge of the programming environment, although a basic knowledge of the emacs editor will be assumed (for an emacs tutorial type "C-h t" within emacs).

The first section of this document is tutorial in nature. It guides you through the process of entering a new grammar into XLE. It also describes how to use the system to parse sentences or other strings and to evaluate and edit your linguistic descriptions. It assumes some familiarity with the operating system (including window and mouse manipulation), the Emacs text-editor, and the linguistic principles of Lexical Functional Grammar. To use this tutorial, you will need to install lfg-mode.el in your Emacs. See the documentation in the Ellie Shoes Womens 420 Villain Boot Black eNkVat
for more details.


Kirkland Lake, ON


Kirkland Lake Project

Angus wants gas prices to be investigated

Charlie Angus

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KIRKLAND LAKE- Timmins-James Bay MP Charlie Angus has written to Canada's Competition Bureau to investigate potential gouging and price fixing regarding northern gasoline prices. In a letter to Interim Commissioner Matthew Boswell, Angus says prices in the north continue to soar and citizens are frustrated with their inability to find any competitive prices from the major chains.

He says the high gas prices require an investigation because it has a huge impact on the bottom line of northern families.

"Spikes in gas prices have an enormous impact on our region, which is large and sparsely populated. Many people rely on a fair marketplace in fuel to sustain their livelihoods, and do not have the luxury of fallback options like public transit in large parts of the North."

Angus says the potential for price fixing among "competitors" or gouging during weekend and holiday times is obvious. And yet the Competition Bureau has up until now refused to look into any of the allegations.

"It is not credible for the Competition Bureau to throw the responsibility for gathering evidence back on the citizens. Northerners are feeling frustrated by this lack of response from the government agency tasked with investigating and enforcing breaches of competition law."

Angus has written to the Competition Bureau on numerous occasions over the years. He says he will keep pushing the Bureau to take this issue seriously.

"Canadians rely on the Competition Bureau to ensure fair market competition and peace of mind in the marketplace. I am asking the Bureau to investigate this ongoing issue in Northern Ontario."

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